2013-07-26

Romanization systems used in the Place Names Database (KNAB)

The following table will show which romanization systems are used in KNAB to represent place names from non-Roman languages.

Column 3 indicates cases when there are own romanization systems in use for Estonian. Mostly these are for languages using the Cyrillic, some have been adopted in the 1970's by the Estonian orthological committee (VÕK), others have been adapted for KNAB. > is given in cases when the system indicated in Column 4 is used.

Column 4 names the system used in KNAB as the main, representative system for any particular language. Abbreviations:

Column 5 indicates methods used in KNAB to ensure the possibility to restore original-script spellings of names. In many instances the romanization systems used are reversible, and there is no need for additional measures. This is signified by the equal mark (=). "KNAB additional symbols" means that the "normal" Roman-script spelling is complemented by additional symbols, such as the middle point (·), in cases there could be ambiguities. In some cases (Burmese, Thai, Tibetan, etc.) the original spellings are recorded using separate transliterations. This means that names are recorded twice: using both "pronounceable" romanizations and transliterations (often ISO ones, if available). Transliterated name forms do not show in the Internet-version of KNAB.

Column 6 describes how will the user of the Internet-version see the corresponding non-Roman names. All names are first given using romanization systems indicated in Column 4. For ten languages (Armenian, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Georgian, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Mongolian, Russian, Tajik, Ukrainian) an additional variant has been generated using the appropriate BGN/PCGN romanization systems. (These variants are not added if they coincide with the main name form.)

To facilitate an overview of all changes on this page (additions of new systems, revisions of existing ones) there is a page with chronology of changes.

Language Script In Estonian texts In KNAB To ensure reversibility Presentation on the Internet
Abaza Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic
Abkhaz Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Adyghian Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic
Altay Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic
Amharic Ethiopic > BGN/PCGN 1967, without diacritics BGN/PCGN + KNAB additional symbols romanization / Amharic
Arabic Perso-Arabic > UN 1972 = romanization / Arabic
Armenian * Armenian Est. transcr., VÕK 1976 KNAB 1993 = romanization / Armenian / BGN/PCGN romanization 1981
Assamese Assamese > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Assamese
Avar Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993
= romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Azerbaijani Roman > Roman = Roman
Bashkir Cyrillic Est. transcr. draft Roman alphabet 2002 (adapted) = romanization / Cyrillic
Batak Batak > Roman alphabet
= Roman
Belarusian Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK 1976 UN 2012 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1979
Bengali Bengali > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Bengali
Buginese Buginese > Roman alphabet
= Roman
Buhid Buhid / Roman > Roman alphabet = Roman
Bulgarian * Cyrillic > UN 2012 KNAB additional symbols UN romanization 2012 / Cyrillic / UN romanization 1977
Burmese Burmese > BGN/PCGN 1970 KNAB transliteration 2003 romanization / Burmese
Buryat Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Caucasian smaller peoples - - KNAB 2003 = (transcription)
Chechen Cyrillic / Roman
> Roman alphabet 1992 = Roman / Cyrillic
Cherokee Cherokee > Samuel Worcester (1st half of the 19th c.) = romanization
Chinese Chinese > UN 1977 Unicode romanization / Chinese
Chukchi Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Church Slavonic Glagolitic / Cyrillic > KNAB 2012 = romanization
Chuvash Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Coptic Coptic > KNAB 2001 = romanization / Coptic
Crimean Tatar Roman / Cyrillic > Roman alphabet 1993 = Roman / Cyrillic
Dargwa Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic
Dari Perso-Arabic > UN 1967 (Persian) KNAB additional symbols romanization / Dari
Dungan Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 (=pinyin) = romanization
Dzongkha Tibetan > national romanization 1997 see Tibetan transliteration romanization / Dzongkha
Erzya Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Eskimo (in Russia) Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Even Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Evenk Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Gagauz Roman / Cyrillic > KNAB 1995 = Roman / Cyrillic
Georgian * Georgian Est. transcr., VÕK 1976 KNAB 1993 = romanization / Georgian / national romanization 2002
Greek Greek > UN 1987 UN 1987 transliteration romanization / Greek
Classical Greek Greek > Latin transcription KNAB additional symbols romanization / Greek
Gujarati Gujarati > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Gujarati
Hanunó'o Hanunó'o / Roman > Roman alphabet = Roman
Hebrew Hebrew > UN 2007 ISO 259:1984 romanization / Hebrew
Hindi Devanagari > UN 1972 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Devanagari
Hmong Roman / Pahawh Hmong > Romanized Popular Alphabet = Roman
Ingush Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 2003 (= Roman alphabet 1923-1937) = romanization / Cyrillic
Inuktitut Canadian aboriginal syllabics > de facto national romanization = romanization / Inuktitut syllabics
Japanese Sino-Japanese > Modif. Hepburn = + Unicode romanization / Japanese
Kabardian-Circassian Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Kalmyk Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Kannada Kannada > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Kannada
Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Kara-Kalpak Cyrillic / Roman
> Roman alphabet (2004?) = Roman / Cyrillic
Karay Cyrillic / Roman > KNAB 2002 = romanization
Karen Karen (Burmese) > KNAB 2009 KNAB Burmese transliteration 2009 romanization / Karen
Kayah Kayah Li > KNAB 2012 = romanization
Kazakh * Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK 1977 de facto national romanization 2004 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1979
Khakass Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic
Khanty * Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Khmer Khmer > UN 1972 KNAB transliteration 1994, modified 2003 romanization / Khmer
Kirghiz Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK 1977 KNAB 1981 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1979
Komi Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Komi-Permyak Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Korean Korean > national romanization 2000 (South Korea) / McCune-Reischauer 1939 (North Korea) KNAB transliteration 1998 romanization / Korean
Koryak Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Kumyk Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic
Kurdish Arabic / Roman > Kurmanji Roman alphabet 1932 = Roman
Lakh Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic
Lao Lao > BGN/PCGN 1966 KNAB Thai transliteration 2003 romanization / Lao
Lepcha Lepcha > traditional (based on Mainwaring 1876) = romanization
Lezgian Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic
Limbu Limbu > KNAB 2012 = romanization
Lisu Lisu / Roman > pinyin = romanization
Macedonian Cyrillic > UN 1977 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Cyrillic
Malayalam Malayalam > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Malayalam
Maldivian Thaana > national romanization 1987 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Thaana
Mansi Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Marathi Devanagari > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Devanagari
Mari Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Hill Mari Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Miao (A Hmao) Miao > pinyin = Roman
Moksha Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Moldavian Roman > Roman = Roman
Mon Mon (Burmese) > KNAB 2003 KNAB Burmese transliteration 2003 romanization / Mon
Mongolian Cyrillic
Est. transcr. KNAB 1993 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1964
Classical Mongolian Mongolian > KNAB 2007 (cmg, in Mongolia); UN 1977 (mvf, pinyin, in China) KNAB transliteration 2007 romanization / Mongolian
Nanai Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Nenets Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Nepali Devanagari > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Devanagari
Nivkh Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
N'Ko N'Ko > KNAB 2012
= romanization
Nogay Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic
Northern Thai Tai Tham > KNAB 2012 KNAB transliteration romanization
Oriya Oriya > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Oriya
Ossetic Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1998 (= Roman alphabet 1923-1938) = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2009
Pashto Perso-Arabic > BGN/PCGN 1968 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Pashto
Persian Perso-Arabic > UN 1967/2012 KNAB additional symbols UN romanization 1967 / Persian / UN romanization 2012
Punjabi Gurmukhi > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Punjabi
Russian Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK UN 1987 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1947
Serbian Cyrillic > UN 1977 = romanization / Cyrillic
Selkup Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic
Shan Shan (Burmese) > KNAB 2003 KNAB Burmese transliteration 2003 romanization / Shan
Sinhalese Sinhalese > KNAB 1989 (=UN 1972 proposal, modif.) KNAB additional symbols romanization / Sinhalese
Syriac Syriac > BGN/PCGN 2011, KNAB modif. = romanization
Tabassaran Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 2003 = romanization / Cyrillic
Tagalog Roman / Tagalog (obs.) > Roman alphabet = Roman
Tagbanwa Tagbanwa / Roman > Roman alphabet = Roman
Tai Dam * Tai Viet > KNAB 2013 = romanization
Tai Lü * New Tai Lue > KNAB 2013 = romanization
Tai Nüa * Tai Le > KNAB 2013 = romanization
Tajik Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK 1977 KNAB 1981 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1994
Talysh Cyrillic / Roman > KNAB 1998 = romanization
Tamasheq Tifinagh > KNAB 2012 = romanization
Tamazight Tifinagh > KNAB 2012 = romanization
Tamil Tamil > UN 1972 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Tamil
Tat Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 2012 = romanization
Tatar Cyrillic / Roman > Roman alphabet 2001 (simplified version)
= Roman / Cyrillic
Telugu Telugu > UN 1972, modif. KNAB additional symbols romanization / Telugu
Thai Thai > UN 2002 ISO 11940: 1998 romanization / Thai
Tibetan Tibetan > UN 1977 (pinyin) Wylie transliteration 1959 romanization / Tibetan
Tigrinya Ethiopic > BGN/PCGN 2007 = romanization / Tigrinya
Turkmen Roman > Roman alphabet 1999 (1993 modif.) = Roman
Tuvinian Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic
Udmurt Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1994 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2011
Uighur Perso-Arabic > UN 1977 (pinyin) KNAB additional symbols romanization / Uighur (Arabic) / Uighur (Latin)
Ukrainian Cyrillic Est. transcr., VÕK 1975 UN 2012 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 1965
Urdu Perso-Arabic > UN 1972 KNAB additional symbols romanization / Urdu
Uzbek Roman / Cyrillic > Roman alphabet 1995 = Roman
Vai Vai > KNAB 2012
= romanization
Yakut Cyrillic Est. transcr. KNAB 1995 = romanization / Cyrillic / BGN/PCGN romanization 2012
Yiddish Hebrew > KNAB 1998 ISO 259: 1984 romanization / Yiddish

* – These documents have also earlier versions.