ROMANIZATION SYSTEMS

Chronology


2016-09-20. Updated: Yiddish.

2016-09-03. Modified: Crimean Tatar.

2015-12-27. Updated: Classical Mongolian.

2013-08-07. Updated: Syriac.

2013-07-26. Updated: Tai Dam, Tai Lü, Tai Nüa (the latter two were transferred to pinyin).

2013-04-12. Updated: Bulgarian (UN 2012 system).

2012-10-28. New: Buhid, Church Slavonic, Hanunó’o, Tagalog, Tagbanwa. Updated: Armenian, Chinese, Georgian, Ossetic.

2012-10-24. New: Hmong, Lepcha, Limbu, Miao (A Hmao).

2012-10-18. New: Cherokee, Lisu.

2012-10-15. New: Batak, Buginese, N’Ko and Vai.

2012-10-11. New: Kayah, Northern Thai (incl. Khün), Tai Dam (incl. Tai Don, Tai Daeng), Tai Lü, Tai Nüa. Updated: Tamasheq.

2012-10-09. New: Syriac, Tamasheq or Tuareg, Tamazight or Berber (incl. Riffian, Tashelhit).

2012-10-01. New: Tat. Updated: Chukchi, Dungan, Eskimo, Even, Evenk, Khanty, Komi, Komi-Permyak, Koryak, Mansi, Nanai, Nenets, Nivkh, Ossetic, Selkup, Tajik, Talysh (tables for earlier alphabets added).

2012-09-27. Updated: Buryat, Kalmyk (tables for earlier alphabets added).

2012-09-26. Updated: Karakalpak, Khakass, Kirghiz (tables for earlier alphabets added); Kazakh (adoption of de facto national romanization; tables for earlier alphabets added).

2012-09-25. Updated: Altay, Gagauz, Yakut (tables for earlier alphabets added).

2012-09-24. Updated: Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, Karachay-Balkar, Turkmen, Tuvinian, Uighur, Uzbek (tables for earlier alphabets added).

2012-09-17. New: Arabic, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, Pashto, Persian, Uighur, Urdu.

2012-09-10. New: Chinese, Dzongkha, Japanese, Tibetan.

2012-09-09. New: Bengali (incl. Assamese), Gujarati, Hindi (incl. Bihari, Konkani, Marathi, Nepali, Sanskrit), Kannada, Karen, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi, Sinhalese, Tamil, Telugu. Updated: Ukrainian (adoption of the 2010 national romanization).

2010-01-11. Updated: Amharic (sentence added, title corrected).

2009-12-28. New: Coptic.

2009-12-23. New: Inuktitut, Maldivian.

2009-12-21. New: Amharic, Azerbaijani, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Greek, Hebrew, Macedonian, Moldavian, Russian, Serbian, Tigrinya, Turkmen, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Yiddish.

2008-02-07. New: Classical Mongolian.

2007-12-03. New: Chukchi, Eskimo (in Russia), Even, Evenk, Khanty, Koryak, Mansi, Nanai, Nenets, Nivkh, Selkup.

2007-11-26. New: Altay, Buryat, Crimean Tatar, Dungan, Erzya, Gagauz, Kalmyk, Karachay-Balkar, Khakass, Moksha, Mongolian, Talysh, Tuvinian, Yakut.

2007-11-21. New: Korean.

2007-01-11. New: Ossetic.

2006-10-30. New: Kazakh, Kirghiz, Mari (Meadow and Hill Mari), Tajik. Updated: Bashkir (romanization replaced by a draft Roman alphabet, 2002, with modifications), Tatar (three letters simplified).

2006-06-07. New: Kara-Kalpak (Roman alphabet), Komi, Komi-Permyak, Udmurt.

2004-07-21. The last column was modified to reflect the newest presentation of names data.

2004-03-08. New: Thai.

2004-01-19. New: Mon, Shan (in Myanmar). Improvements (mainly small corrections): Burmese.

2003-07-21. New: Kumyk, Nogay. Improvements (mainly concerning the legibility of Arabic characters; the content of the tabels unchanged): Avar, Chechen, Dargwa.

2003-06-11. New information: Caucasian smaller peoples. Improvements: Adyghian (pronunciation, Roman alphabet of the 1930's, sources), Avar (equivalent to character No. 16 changed; notes, Roman alphabet of the 1930's, Arab alphabet added) and Kabardian-Circassian (pronunciation, notes).

2003-04-29. New: Abaza, Adyghian, Avar, Dargwa, Kabardian-Circassian, Lakh, Lezgian. The system for Tabassaran was updated as the new Tabasaran-Russian dictionary of 2001 provides for a revised alphabet and orthography.

2003-03-14. New: Abkhaz, Chechen, Ingush, Tabassaran.

2003-02-11. New: Armenian, Georgian.

2003-02-26. New: Burmese.

2002-11-18. New: Bashkir, Chuvash.

2002-11-11. New: Tatar.

2002-11-10. First system: Karay.

Note. Standard file names for romanization systems consist of the sequence kbl + language abbreviation. When the text to the tables is bilingual (Estonian and English) there are no numbers added. Number 1 refers to texts in Estonian and 2 to English only. Some of the systems are as yet available only with Estonian explanations, these are not listed above.