Compiled by the UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems
Version 3.0a, May 2008


The United Nations recommended system was approved in 1977 (resolution III/13), based on the official system (1957) proposed by the Academy of the Hebrew Language and used by the Survey of Israel. The table was published as an annex to the resolution1. The 1977 resolution was the elaboration of an earlier resolution (II/9) adopted in 1972. The system was amended in 2007 (resolution IX/9)2 on the basis of a decision by the Academy of the Hebrew Language taken in November, 2006.

The amended system is being applied in Israel to geographical names in maps and on road signs; there is a five-year implementation plan.

Hebrew is written from right to left. The correct romanization of the Hebrew script presumes the presence of fully pointed text, i.e. where all vowels are marked. These marks are usually omitted in everyday writing and print though a method of denoting vowels with certain consonant characters (ktiv male) is widely used also in the rendering of geographical names. The romanization is not fully reversible, e.g. t and s each denote two different consonant characters, and vowels can have more than one way of writing in the Hebrew script.


In the romanization table below five consonants have a special final form, which is shown in square brackets in addition to the main character. Superscript numbers refer to the notes at the end.

1 א ' 2,9
2 בּ b
3 ב v3
4 ג (גּ)4 g
5 ד (דּ)4 d
6 ה h7
7 ו v10
8 ז z
9 ח
10 ט t
11 י y11
12 כּ [ךּ] k
13 כ [ך ךְ] kh3
14 ל l
15 מ [ם] m
16 נ [ן] n
17 ס s
18 ע ' 8,9
19 פּ p
20 פ [ף] f3
21 צ [ץ] ts
22 ק k
23 ר r
24 שׁ sh
25 שׂ s
26 ת (תּ)4 t

Vowels (א stands for any consonant character)

1 אַ a
2 אֲ a
3 אָ a, o
4 אֶ e
5 אֱ e
6 אֵ e, é5
7 אֵי e
8 אְ e6
9 אִ i
10 אִי i
11 אֳ o
12 אֹ o
13 וֹ o
14 אֻ u
15 וּ u