REPORT ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF
UNITED NATIONS ROMANIZATION SYSTEMS FOR GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
Compiled by the UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems
Version 2.2, January 2003
The United Nations recommended system was approved in 1972 (II/11) and amended in 1977 (III/12), based on a report prepared by D. N. Sharma. The tables and their corrections were published in volume II of the conference reports (Second United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. London, 10-31 May 1972. Vol. II. Technical papers. United Nations. New York 1974, pp. 136-138; Third United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. Athens, 17 August - 7 September 1977. Vol. II, Technical papers, pp. 393 etc.).
There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products.
Punjabi (Panjābī) uses an alphasyllabic script (Gurmukhi) whereby each character represents a syllable rather than one sound. Vowels and diphthongs are marked in two ways: as independent characters (used syllable-initially) and in an abbreviated form, to denote vowels after consonants. The romanization table is unambiguous. The system is mostly reversible but there exist some ambiguities in the romanization of vowels (independent vs. abbreviated characters) and consonants (combinations with subscript consonants vs. character sequences).
Abbreviated vowel characters and other symbols (ਕ stands for any consonant character)
Subscript consonant characters (ਮ stands for any base character)
Note. Absence of the inherent vowel (-a) is not marked in the spelling in any way except for the combinations with subscript characters and those which are doubled by ੱ (adhaka).
For differences between the UN system and the ISO transliteration standard ISO 15919: 2001 see the section on the romanization of Hindi.