Selection of place names lists of KNAB

Mari El (Russia)

Geographical names

The list contains names of 2674 geographical features covering Mari El, Russia, produced from the Place Names Database (KNAB) of the Institute of the Estonian Language. Web map interface based on OpenStreetMap programmed by Indrek Hein.

Main list
Includes references from Russian variant names (romanized). Map interface allows to view locations on a web map.

Map
Web map of Mari El with clickable names.

Indexes:
Russian (Cyrillic) | Mari (Cyrillic) | Mari (romanized) | Other | Sources

Comments

Introduction

The list has been compiled based on several sources, mainly the 2002 dictionary of Mari toponyms (RU_ME2002n), the official list of toponyms in Mari languages (RU_ME2017n) and the 1985 list of Mari toponyms (RU_ME1985n).

Spelling of geographical names

Russian names have been romanized according to the 1987 UN System. BGN/PCGN romanization of names is available in the online database. Mari names have been romanized according to systems worked out for the Place Names Database KNAB (see tables for Meadow Mari and Hill Mari languages).

Besides Russian, Mari El has two literary languages: Meadow Mari (olyk marij jylme, Russian lugovo-vostočnyj marijskij jazyk) and Hill Mari (kyryk-mary jÿlmÿ, Russian gornomarijskij jazyk). The latter is spoken mainly in the west in Gornomarijskij rajon but it also serves speakers of western dialects in Jurinskij rajon and Kilemarskij rajon. The Hill Mari language has undergone in recent decades a change in the spelling system: earlier front vowels ä, ö, ü, ÿ were marked only in the word stem's first syllable, now they are marked in all syllables, cf. (new vs. old) Ärgäsola – Ärgasola, Cerkÿsola – Cerkysola, Kogo Sörmänängÿr – Kogo Sörmanängyr.

Interpretation of entries

Name. Spelled in romanization and in the original-script form. Official names in Russian are given as main headwords. Mari names are given as official parallel names if they occur in the 2017 official list. # marks features that are considered obsolete. Glossary of words frequent in Mari geographical names (* marks Hill Mari words if different):

Language and other labels (in italics after the name). ISO 639 codes have been used, incl.:

More properly, Meadow Mari should have a code mhr but in KNAB, the default is to use chm for Meadow Mari.

Additional symbols have been used to denote status, style, etc. (the symbol is followed by standard label used in the online database):
¤ – COLLOQ (colloquial)
∞ – HIST (historical name)
∓ – LESS USED
ƒ – LOCAL PRON (local pronunciation of the name)
‡ – OBS (obsolete name form)
§ – OFF (official name)
ℌ – OLD SPELLING
≡ – PAR (parallel name)
∈ – PARTLY (the name applies only to part of the feature)
¿ – QUEST (questionable; not sure if the name denotes the same feature)
⋈ – RARE (rare name)
∷ – SUPP (supposed name form, not verified)
✹ – UNOFF (unofficial)

Source (in square brackets). Source abbreviation used in KNAB (see the list) and page number (after a colon) if appropriate. Additional symbols that are sometimes used after source abbreviations: # (the name form is secondary, not first in the source), ~ (the spelling in KNAB has been slightly modified, esp. regarding capitalization or hyphenation), ^ (the spelling has been based on name form in the source).

Type of the feature. KNAB codes apply:
a1re – ADM1 unit (republic)
a2 – ADM2 unit (in Russia: district /rajon/)
a21 – ADM2 unit, city
a3 – ADM3 unit
h2 – lake
h4 – river, stream
p10 – city, town (in Russian, gorod)
p11 – town (in Russian, posëlok gorodskogo tipa, rabočij posëlok)
p2 – village (in Russian, derevnja)
p21 – hamlet (in Russian, posëlok)
p2lesn – settlement (in Russian, lesničestvo)
p2po – settlement (in Russian, počinok)
p2se – church village (in Russian, selo)
p2vy – settlement (in Russian, vyselok)
p31 – locality
p32 – part of a village or settlement
p34 – abandoned or vanished settlement (in Russian, uročišče)
p4 – farm (in Russian, hutor)
r5 – region
u0 – city district

Administrative unit(s) where the feature is situated. CU – Chuvashia, KIR – Kirovskaja oblast', KOS – Kostromskaja oblast', ME – Mari El, NIZ – Nižegorodskaja oblast', TA – Tatarstan, UD – Udmurtia. Cross-unit features have an added code RU (Russia). Four-letter abbreviations in KNAB refer to districts:
Gorn – Gornomarijskij rajon
Juri – Jurinskij rajon
Kile – Kilemarskij rajon
Kuže – Kuženerskij rajon
Mari – Mari-Turekskij rajon
Medv – Medvedevskij rajon
Mork – Morkinskij rajon
Novo – Novotor"jal’skij rajon
Orša – Oršanskij rajon
Para – Paran’ginskij rajon
Sern – Sernurskij rajon
Sove – Sovetskij rajon
Volž – Volžskij rajon
Zven – Zvenigovskij rajon

Data on ADM1 (republics, oblasts) and ADM2 (districts, district-level cities) should be up-to-date if the named feature has been found in maps, i.e. coordinates have been given. OpenStreetMap has been used to check the administrative boundaries. Data on ADM3 are not up-to-date and originate in RU_ME2002n where they appear to reflect the administrative division in a given administrative reference book (which is indicated in the source element by the year after a colon, e.g. RU_ME2002n:1952).

Geographical coordinates. Coordinates have been taken based on Russian topographic maps, verified by web maps, mostly OpenStreetMap. In case of administrative units, coordinates have been replaced by names of administrative centres (underlined) if they have different names. If coordinates have not been determined, question marks appear instead. In some cases, descriptions of the approximate location have been added in comments (descriptions are based on a source RU_ME2005m).

Other name variants, notes and comments. Name variants are listed, ordered by languages. Names with the same origin (various spellings of the same name) are usually grouped together.

Ethnic composition of a populated place is based on information in RU_ME2002n. Code chm denotes both Meadow Mari and Hill Mari populated places.