aasta (declension type) M126
abbreviation of personal names O49
abbreviations O46--O49
abessive (case) M64
ablative (case) M60
absolute nominative construction SÜ99
absolute synonyms L32
abstract case M49
abstract substantive M4
accent O9
acoustic properties of sounds O5
action substantive SM20--SM21
active sentence SÜ19
active vocabulary L22
actual meaning L47
adapted name O18, L57
adapting L18
adessive (case) M59
adjectival attribute SÜ71--SÜ73
adjective M5
adjective + adjective SM38
adjective + substantive SM28
adjective + substantive (solid and separate writing) O40
adjective phrase SÜ3, SÜ85
adjective prefixes SM36
adjective suffixes SM33--SM36
adposition M11
adposition of manner and state M11
adposition of place M11
adposition of time M11
adpositional phrase SÜ3, SÜ85
adpositions of cause M11
adpositions of quantity and degree M11
adverb M7
adverb + adjective (solid and separate writing) O42
adverb + substantive (solid and separate writing) O40
adverb + verb SM19
adverb of manner and state M7
adverb of place M7
adverb of time M7
adverb phrase SÜ3, SÜ85
adverb suffixes SM41
adverbial SÜ8, SÜ42--SÜ51, SÜ63
adverbial clause SÜ89
adverbial in object cases SÜ48
adverbial of cause SÜ42
adverbial of concession SÜ42
adverbial of condition SÜ42
adverbial of instrument SÜ42
adverbial of manner SÜ42
adverbial of place SÜ42
adverbial of possessor SÜ42, SÜ44
adverbial of purpose SÜ42
adverbial of quantity SÜ42
adverbial of state SY 42 50-51
adverbial of time SÜ42, SÜ47
adverbs of quantity and degree M7
adversative conjunction M13
affirmation M97--M98, SÜ30
agent SÜ9
agent substantive SM22
agent-adverbial SÜ42
agglutination M16
agreement SÜ6, SÜ18, SÜ39, SÜ51, SÜ73, SÜ78
-ahta- (verb suffix) SM9, SM14
äike(ne) M138
ajama M173
allative (case) M58
allegory L45
allomorph SJ10, M15
allophone SJ10
alphabetic symbol O49
alphabetic writing O1
alphabetical dictionary L61
alternative question SÜ58
alveolar O6
-(a)m (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
Americanisms L21
anachronisms L23
analytic forms cf. compound forms
analytic superlative cf. compound superlative
anglicisms L21
anthroponym, personal name L55
anthroponymy, study of personal names L55
antithesis L35
antonyms L34
antonymy L34
apostrophe O21, O65
apposition SÜ71, SÜ76--SÜ80
-ar (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-är (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
archaisms L23
-(a)rd (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
argot L25
armas (declension type) M156
articulation of sounds O5
artificial stem L17
artificial word L17
aspectual verb SÜ36
assimilation M29
-ata- (verb suffix) SM9, SM14
attribute SÜ8, SÜ71--SÜ75
attributive clause SÜ89, SÜ90
au M117
augmentatives L28
autonomous words M1
autosemantic word, full word M1
auxiliary word M1


baby talk cf. nursery language
back vowel O6
back-formation SM1
Baltic borrowings L10
Baltic-Finnic SJ1
Baltic-Finnic vocabulary L7
barbarisms L21
base form cf. initial form
basic vocabulary L22
-bi- (verb suffix) SM9, SM11
-bik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
bilabial O6
bilingual dictionary L62
borrowed foreign word or phrase L19
borrowing L9
bound meaning L47
brackets SÜ79, SÜ98
-bu- (verb suffix) SM9, SM11
bureaucratic jargon L25
byname L55


calque cf. loan translation
capital and small letters in proper nouns O24--O37
capital initial letter O24
capitalization of titles: books, music, art etc. O30
capitalization of titles: periodicals O29
capitalization: every word in compound name O24
capitalization: only the first word in compound name O24
capitalized abbreviations O47
cardinal numeral M6
case M47--M65
categorial meaning M1, SM3, L47
causative suffixes SM9--SM10
causative verb M3
change of consonant length M28
change of consonant quality M29
change of degree of quantity M27
change of meaning L43
changing of vocabulary L4
classification of consonants O6
classification of dictionaries L60--L62
classification of vowels O6
clause SJ10, SÜ3, SÜ86, SÜ87, SÜ88, SÜ89
clause of cause SÜ89
clause of concession SÜ89
clause of condition SÜ89
clause of degree SÜ89
clause of manner SÜ89
clause of place SÜ89
clause of purpose SÜ89
clause of result SÜ89
clause of time SÜ89
clause with an experiencer or possessor SÜ11
cliché L48
closed inlection type M114
colloquial words L30
colon O58, SÜ64, SÜ88, SÜ79, SÜ93
colorative construction SÜ14
comitative (case) M65
comitative adverbial SÜ42, SÜ46
comma O57, SÜ64, SÜ79, SÜ88, SÜ91, SÜ98, SÜ102
common abbreviations O50
common noun M4, L54
communicative functions of constituents SÜ4, SÜ5, SÜ10
communicative types of sentences SÜ56--SÜ61
comparable words M46, M100--M103
comparative (degree) M100, M102
comparison M100--M103
complete sentence SÜ1
complex sentence SÜ86
composite sentence SÜ1, SÜ86
compound adjective SM37--SM40
compound adverb SM42
compound forms, analytic forms M3, M72
compound predicate SÜ14
compound sentence SÜ86--SÜ88
compound substantive SM27--SM32
compound superlative, analytic superlative M103
compound verb M3, SM19
compound word SM2, SM4
compounding SM2
concept signified (thought) L42
conceptual dictionary, ideological dictionary L61
concrete noun M4
conditional (mood) M91, M93, SÜ29
conjoining conjunction M13
conjugable words M46
conjugation types M162
conjunction M13
conjunctive word SÜ8, SÜ52, SÜ54--SÜ55, SÜ89, SÜ90
connotation cf. connotative meaning
connotative meaning, connotation L47
conservative principle of orthography O4, O38
consonant O5--O6
consonant cluster O6
constituent SY 2
constituent structure SÜ2
context SÜ1
contextual ellipsis SÜ65
continuative suffixes SM9, SM13
continuative verbs M3
contradictory opposition L34
contrary opposition L34
contrastive lexicology L1
conventional names cf. exonyms
conversion, direct derivation, zero-derivation SM2
conversion to verb SM17
co-ordinate compound adjective SM40
co-ordinate compound substantive SM32
co-ordinate syntagm SÜ6
coordinating conjunction M 13 SÜ54
coordination SÜ6, SÜ62--SÜ64, SÜ80, SÜ87
correlative word SÜ89
count noun M4, M66


-da- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
da-construction SÜ99
da-infinitive M73--M74
dash O61, SÜ64, SÜ79, SÜ88, SÜ98
dates O54
declarative sentence SÜ57
declension of abbreviations O49
declension of compound numerals M160
declension of names M161
declension types M116
declinable words M46
defective (part of speech) M1
defective adjective M5
defective conjugable word M3
definiteness S 10
degree of comparison M100
degree of quantity O9--O10
demonstrative pronoun M8
denotative meaning L47
dental O6
dependent clause cf. subordinate clause
de-plural M69
derivation SM2--SM3
derivation of verbs with foreign stems SM18
(derivational) base SM2
derivational meaning L47
(derivational) stem SM2
(derivational) suffix SM2
derivative SM2
des-construction SÜ99, SÜ100
descriptive vocabulary L62
descriptive word L8
des-form M73, M80
designation L54
deterioration of meaning L44
determinative pronoun M8
diachronic lexicology L1
dialect cf. regional dialect, social dialect
dialect dictionary L60
dialect words L24
dialect words in literary language L15
dialectism L24
dictionary L59
dictionary of abbreviations (and acronyms) L60
dictionary of antonyms L62
dictionary of contemporary language L60
dictionary of foreign words L60
dictionary of government L62
dictionary of homonyms L62
dictionary of literary language L60
dictionary of neologisms L60
dictionary of paronyms L62
dictionary of synonyms L32, L62
differentiation of vocabulary L22--L23, L27--L28
-dik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
diminutive suffixes SM20, SM24
diminutives L28
diphthong O6
direct address SÜ96
direct borrowing L11
direct command SÜ59
direct derivation cf. conversion
direct meaning L47
direct speech SÜ92--SÜ93
disjunct SÜ8, SÜ52--SÜ53, SÜ95
disjunctive conjunction M13
dissimilation M29
-dle- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
dots O69
-du- (verb suffix) SM9, SM11


-e : -e (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
-e : -me (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
eba- SM26, SM37
-eeri- (verb suffix) SM18
-eeru- (verb suffix) SM18
-el (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
elama (conjugation type) M167
elative (case) M57
elevated vocabulary L29
ellipsis SÜ65
elliptical sentence SÜ1, SÜ34, SÜ65
ema-pesa (declension type) M119
ending M15
endonyms L57
English borrowings L11
enumeration of subsections O55
ephitet L48
-er (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
esitlema (conjugation type) M168
essive (case) M63
Estonian alphabet O1
Estonian first names L55
Estonian native vocabulary L7--L8
Estonian phonemes O6
Estonian surnames L55
Estonianisms L21
Estonianization of names L55
ethnonym L56
etymological dictionary L53, L62
etymology L53
euphemisms L33
exclamation mark O63
exclamatory sentence SÜ61
exeptions M19, M115
existential sentence SÜ11
exonyms, conventional names O18, L57
exotism L21
experiencer (semantic role) SÜ9
explanatory conjunction M13
explanatory dictionary L62
expressive meaning L47
exterior local cases M50


factitive suffixes SM9--SM10
fashionable word L5
filler in, hesitation word L48
finite form M3, M72, SÜ13
Finnish borrowings L10
Finnishisms L21
Finno-Permic vocabulary L7
Finno-Sami vocabulary L7
Finno-Ugric SJ1
Finno-Ugric vocabulary L7
first degree of quantity O10
first name, given name L55
fixed word-combination L51
focus SÜ10
folk etymology L53
foreign letter O1
foreign suffixes SM43
foreign word O16, L19
form stem M17, M21
form word cf. synsemantic word
formation of plural stem M71
formative M15
forms of analogy M20
formulaic sentence SÜ65
free meaning L47
frequency dictionary L61
frequentative suffixes SM9, SM15--SM16
frequentative verb M3
fricative O6
front vowel O6
full homonyms L39
full word cf. autosemantic word
fullstop O48, O56
functional style L30
fundamental meaning L47
fusion M16
future SÜ26--SÜ27


general vocabulary L22
genitive (case) M52
genitive compounding SM29
German borrowings L10
Germanisms L21
-gi- (verb suffix) SM9, SM16
-gil (adverb suffix) SM41
-gile (adverb suffix) SM41
given name cf. first name
government SÜ6--SÜ7
gradation M21, M22--M34
grade alternation patterns M22, M30--M34
grade alternation patterns of conjugable words M34
grade alternation patterns of declinable words M31
grade change M22
grammar SJ9, SJ11
grammatical meaning L47
grammatical synonyms L32
Greek borrowings L12
Greek semi-prefixes and semi-suffixes L12
grouping digits in numbers O51
-gu- (verb suffix) SM9, SM16


habe (declension type) M129
hea M117
head SM4, SÜ3, SÜ6
heavy accent O9
hesitation word cf. filler in
high vowel O6
historical events O31
historisms L23
homogeneous attributes SÜ80
homographs L37
homonymic collision L39
homonymous lexemes L39
homonymous word forms L38
homonyms L37
homonymy L37
homonymy of word forms L38
homophones L37
humorous word L28
hüppama (conjugation type) M188
hybrid word L12
hydronym L56
hyperonym L36
hyphen O 48 60
hyponym L36
hyponymy L36


-i (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-i- (verb suffix) SM9, SM16
ideographic synonyms L32
ideological dictionary cf. conceptual dictionary
idiolect SJ2
idiom L51
idiomatic expressions consisting of verb + noun M3, SÜ16
idiomatics L51
-ik (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
-ik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
illative (case) M54--M55
imperative (mood) M91, M94
imperative sentence SÜ59
imperfect M85, M87, SÜ25
impersonal (voice) M84, SÜ20
inchoative M3
indeclinable adjective SÜ73
indefinite pronoun M8
indefiniteness SÜ10
indication of case in numeral written as number O53
indicative (mood) M91--M92, SÜ29
indirect borrowings L11
indirect command SÜ59
indirect speech SÜ92
Indo-European and Indo-Iranian borrowings L10
inessive (case) M56
infinitive M73--M76, cf. da-infinitive, vat-infinitive, ma-infinitive
inflection M115
inflection stem M35
inflection type M19, M113
initial form, base form M18, L2
initial letter in building names O25
initial letter in country names (short and full titles) O27
initial letter in personal names O28
initial letter in place names O25
initial letter in vehicle names O36
initial stem M35
inserted consonant M29, SM5
instructive (case) M48
instrument (semantic role) SÜ9
instrumental adpositions M11
interior local cases M50
interjection M14
internal loan L15
international word L12
interrogative sentence SÜ58
interrogative-relative pronoun M8
intransitive verb M3, SÜ35
i-plural M70
ironic words L28
irregular spelling system SJ5
-is (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
ise M159
-ise- (verb suffix) SM9, SM13
-(i)stu (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
i-superlative M103


-ja (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
jälgima (conjugation type) M170
jargon L25
-jas (adjective suffix) SM33--SM34
jätma (conjugation type) M177
jooma (conjugation type) M165
jõuline (declension type) M136
journalistic vocabulary L30
julgema M173
jussive (mood) M91, M96, SÜ29
juus (declension type) M137


-k (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
kahju M124
käima (conjugation type) M165
kaks M150
kallis M158
-kas (adjective suffix) SM33, SM34
-kas (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
käsi (declension type) M149
käskima (conjugation type) M184
kaunis M158
keegi M159
-ke(ne) (noun suffix) SM38
-ke(ne) (substantive suffix) SM20, SM24
kes M159
-kesi (adverb suffix) SM41
-ki and -gi O11
-ki- (verb suffix) SM9, SM16
-kil (adverb suffix) SM41
-kile (adverb suffix) SM41
koer (declension type) M146
kohus M158
koi-idee (declension type) M117
kõik M150
kole (declension type) M128
kolmainus M158
-kond (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
kõnelema (conjugation type) M169
-ku- (verb suffix) SM9, SM16
kumbki M159
-kuti (adverb suffix) SM41
küünal (declension type) M154


-la (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
labiodental consonant O6
lagi (declension type) M145
-lane (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
-lane (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
language of names L57
language planning SJ9
laryngeal O6
laskma M186
lateral consonant O6
Latin abbreviations O49
Latin alphabet O1
Latin borrowings L12
Latin script O1
Latin semi-prefixes and semi-suffixes L12
Latvian borrowings L10
laulma (conjugation type) M178
-lda- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
-ldane (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
-ldasa (adverb suffix) SM41
-le- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
learned vocabulary L30
lexeme L2
lexical item L2
lexical meaning L42, L47
lexical relations L31
lexical synonyms L32
lexical word L2
lexicalization L2
lexicography SJ9, L59
lexicology SJ9, SJ11, L1
lexicostatistics L58
-li (adverb suffix) SM41
light accent O9
-lik (adjective suffix) SM33--SM34
-line (adjective suffix) SM33--SM34
-line (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
linguistic creativity L4
literary language SJ2, SJ4
Livonian-Finnic vocabulary L7
loan L9
loan meaning L13
loan phraseological unit L52
loan stems L10
loan translation, calque L14
loan word L9
local case M50
local dialect cf. regional dialect
loe M158
long sound O9
long syllable O7
loss M29
Low German borrowings L10
low vowel O6
lower case abbreviation O47
-lt (adverb suffix) SM41
lugema (conjugation type) M182
-lus (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21


-m (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
ma-construction SÜ99
ma-form M76
magas (declension type) M131
main clause, superordinate clause SÜ86, SÜ89
main forms M20
ma-infinitive, supine M73, M76
maitsma ~ maitsema (conjugation type) M185
maiuscula maiestatis O37
major sentence types SÜ11
maks-construction SÜ99--SÜ100
manner (declension type) M157
manner of articulation O5--O6
marker M15
mas-construction SÜ99
mas-form M76
mast-construction SÜ99
mast-form M76
mata-construction SÜ99--SÜ100
mata-form M76
matronymic L55
meaning L42
medial sounds O10
medial vowel O6
mees M150
melioration of meaning L44
members of category M45
metaphor L45
methods of abbreviation O47
metonymy L45
microtoponym L56
-mik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
mina M159
-mine (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
-mine (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
minema M171
minor sentence SÜ34, SÜ65, SÜ95
mis M159
-misi (adverb suffix) SM41
miski M159
mitte- SM26, SM37
mixed composite sentence SÜ94
modal adverb M12
model word cf. type word
modification of stem sound SM5
modifier SÜ6
modifying component of compound word SM4
momentaneous suffixes SM9, SM14
momentaneous verb M3
mõni M123
monolingual dictionary L62
monosemia L46
mood M72, M91--M96, SÜ17, SÜ29
morpheme SJ10, M15
morphological analysis M15
morphological category M45
morphological dictionary L62
morphological formation, morphological synthesis M15
morphological principle in orthography O4, O11
morphological synthesis cf. morphological formation
morphology SJ9, SJ11
morphophonology SJ11
morphotaxis SJ10
mõskma (conjugation type) M181
most frequent Estonian words L22
most important dictionaries L63
mõte (declension type) M152
mõtlema (conjugation type) M190
-mu (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
multilingual dictionary L62
murdma (conjugation type) M180


naine M138
nali-sõber (declension type) M143
name, proper noun M4, L54
name dictionary L60
name of animal L55
names of animal breeds O20, O25, O28, O40
names of congresses, festivals, exhibitions, etc. O33
names of decorations O32
names of government departments and offices, organizations, institutions and businesses O26
names of months, days and holidays O37
names of occupations O37
names of plant breeds O34
narrowing of meaning L44
nasal O6
native phraseological unit L52
native words L18
-nd (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
-nda- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
-ndik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
-ndus (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
-ne (adjective suffix) SM33--SM34
-ne- (verb suffix) SM9, SM12
negation M97, M99, SÜ30--SÜ31
neologism L23
new spelling system SJ6, O2
nexus SÜ6
-ng (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
nickname L55
-nik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
nimi (declension type) M121
-nna (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
nominal style SÜ102
nominalization SÜ102
nominative (case) M51
nominative compounding SM29
nominative meaning L47
nonce word cf. occasional word
noncount noun M4, M66
non-finite adverbial constructions SÜ99--SÜ100
non-finite construction SJ10, SÜ3, SÜ99--SÜ102
non-finite forms M3
non-homogeneous attributes SÜ80
normal sentence SÜ11
normative dictionary L62
nõu M117
noun M2
noun + adjective (solid and separate writing) O42
noun in the nominative + verb SM19
noun phrase SÜ3, SÜ71--SÜ80, SÜ82
-nu (substantive suffix) SM 20 22
nud-construction SÜ99--SÜ101
nud-participle M79
number M47, M66--M71, SÜ17--SÜ18
numeral M6
numeral + substantive (solid and separate writing) O40
numerals with ne- and line-adjective O53
numerical expressions O51--O55
nursery language, baby talk (vocabulary) L26


object SÜ8, SÜ35--SÜ38
object adverbial SÜ42
object clause SÜ89
oblique mood M91, M95, SÜ29
obsolete word L23
occasional meaning L47
occasional word, nonce word L27
õel (declension type) M130
old spelling system SJ5, O2
olema M171
õlu M123
oluline (declension type) M135
õnnelik (declension type) M141
onomastics L54
onomatopoeic word L8
open inflection type M114
õppima (conjugation type) M175
optative sentence SÜ60
-or (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-ör (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
ordinal numeral M6
organs of speech O5
origin of idiomatic expressions L52
origin of vocabulary L6
original meaning, primitive meaning L47
orthographic dictionary L62
orthographic sentence SÜ1
orthography, cf. spelling
overlong sound O9


pääse (declension type) M153
pada-sõda (declension type) M144
päike(ne) M138
palatal consonant O6
palatalization O6
parallel name L57
parentheses, round brackets O66
parenthesis SÜ95--SÜ98
parenthetical exclamation SÜ97
paronomasia L40
paronyms L40
part of speech M1
partial homonyms L39
partial object SÜ36
partial predicative SÜ40--SÜ41
partial subject SÜ33
participial construction SÜ101
participle M73, M77--M79
particle M2
particle + adjective/participle SM39
particle + substantive SM31
partitive M53
partitive verb SÜ36
parts of sentence, syntactic functions SÜ5, SÜ8
passive sentence SÜ19, SÜ20
passive sentence with subject SÜ21
passive sentence without subject SÜ20
passive vocabulary L22
past M85, M87--M90, SÜ25
past participle M79
patronymic L55
pea M117
pejorative L28
perfect M85, M88, SÜ25
period dictionary L60
periphrasis L32--L33
person M72, SÜ17, SÜ18
personal (voice) M83, SÜ20
personal name cf. anthroponym
personal pronoun M8
personification L45
pesema (conjugation type) M172
phoneme SJ10, O6
phoneme length O9
phonemic transcription O4
phonetic change (in word formation) SM5
phonetic principle in orthography O4
phonetic transcription SJ10, O4
phonetics SJ9, SJ11
phonology SJ9, SJ11
phonotaxis SJ10
phrasal coordination SÜ62--SÜ64
phrasal verb M3, SÜ15
phrase SJ10, SÜ3
phraseological dictionary L52, L60
phraseological unit L51
phraseology L51
pidama M186
place name cf. toponym
place-name study cf. toponymy
place of articulation O5--O6
pleonasm L49
pluperfect M85, M89, SÜ25
plural M66, M68--M71
plurale tantum M4, M66
polysemantic word L37
polysemy L46
position of numbers in text O51
positive (degree) M100--M101
possessive pronoun M8
postposed apposition SÜ76--SÜ79
postposed attribute SÜ72
postposition M11
predicate SÜ8, SÜ13--SÜ31
predicative SÜ8, SÜ39--SÜ41
predicative clause SÜ89
predicative construction SÜ6
prefix SM2
preposed apposition SÜ76--SÜ79
preposition M11
prepositions and postpositions denoting attitude and relationship M11
present participle M78
present tense M 85-86 SÜ24
preterite M85, M90, SÜ25
primary stress O8
primary word cf. simple stem
primitive meaning cf. original meaning
principial forms M20
principal parts of sentence SÜ8
principles of orthography O4
principles of solid and separate writing O38
pro-adjective M8
pro-adverb M9
productivity SM8
professionalism L25
progressive construction SÜ28
prohibitions SÜ30
pronoun M2, M8
pronoun + substantive (solid and separate writing) O40
pronouncing dictionary L62
pro-numeral M8
pronunciation of abbreviations O49
pronunciation of foreign names L18
proper noun cf. name
pro-substantive M8
pseudonym L55
pun L39
punctuation in abbreviations O48
punctuation marks O56--O69, SÜ63--SÜ64, SÜ78--SÜ80, SÜ88, SÜ91, SÜ93, SÜ98, SÜ102


quantifier SÜ80--SÜ84
quantifier phrase SÜ3, SÜ81--SÜ84
question mark O62
quotation marks O24, O37, O64, SÜ93, L45


-r (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
rare word L27
ratas (declension type) M155
ratsu (declension type) M124
-rda- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
reciprocal pronoun M8
reciprocal verb M3
redel-kringel (declension type) M127
referent L42
reflexive pronoun M8
reflexive suffixes SM 9 11
reflexive verb M3
regional dialect, local dialect SJ2, SJ3
regional differentiation of vocabulary L24
rehi M150
relative adverb SÜ54
relative clause SÜ90
relative pronoun SÜ54, SÜ90
relative synonyms L32
replacement M29
reported speech SÜ92
reporting clause SÜ92
reverse dictionary L61
rheme SÜ10, SÜ66
rhetorical question SÜ58
-rik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
Roman numerals O52
round brackets cf. parentheses
rubla M124
ruhi M150
running word cf. word (in text)
Russian borrowings L10
Russian-Estonian transcription O23
Russianism L21
Russian-Latin transliteration O22


saama (conjugation type) M165
saama-future SÜ27
saatma (conjugation type) M176
sada M150
sai (declension type) M142
saying L51
script cf. writing
second degree of quantity O10
secondary meaning L47
secondary parts of sentence SÜ8
secondary stress O8
see M159
segmental phoneme O6, O9
semantic agreement SÜ6
semantic case M50
semantic features L41
semantic field L42
semantic functions of constituents SÜ4, SÜ5, SÜ9
semantic loan L13
semantic network L42
semantic object SÜ9
semantic principle in orthography O4, O38
semantic shift L44
semantic subject SÜ9
semantic triangle L42
semantics SJ9, L41
semicolon O 59 SÜ64, SÜ88
seminar (declension type) M120
semi-prefix SM4
semi-suffix SM4
semivowel O6
sentence SJ10, SÜ1
sentence analysis SÜ12
set of synonyms L32
shade of meaning L47
short illative M55
short inflection stem M35
short syllable O7
shortened sound O9
shortening of underlying stem SM5
-si (adverb suffix) SM41
signifier L42
siil (declension type) M140
simile L51
simple forms M3, M72
simple sentence SÜ1
simple stem, primary word SM2
simple superlative M103
simple verb M3
sina M159
singular M66--M67
singulare tantum M4, M66
-sk (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-skele- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
-skle- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
slang L25
slang dictionary L60
slang words L25
slang words in literary language L15
slash (/) O68
Slavic borrowings L10
social dialect, sociolect SJ2
social differentiation of vocabulary L25
sociolect cf. social dialect
solid and separate writing O38--O45
solid and separate writing of abbreviations O49
solid and separate writing of adpositions O45
solid and separate writing of adverbs O45
solid and separate writing of compound verbs O44
solid and separate writing of idiomatic expressions (verb + noun) O44
solid and separate writing of numbers O51
solid and separate writing of numerals O43
solid and separate writing of particles O45
solid and separate writing of phrasal verbs O44
solid and separate writing of place names O41
solid and separate writing of verbs O44
soolane (declension type) M134
sound SJ10, O5
sound length O9
sound symbolism L8
sources of new Estonian words L5
special question SÜ58
speech SJ12
spelling, orthography O3, O11--O17
spelling of borrowed foreign words or phrases O19
spelling of consonant clusters O15
spelling of derivatives from foreign words O21
spelling of diphthongs O15
spelling of f and š O16
spelling of foreign names O18
spelling of foreign words O16
spelling of h O12, O16
spelling of i and j O13
spelling of sound length O14
spelling of stop consonants O11, O14
spelling of the final stop consonant in a foreign word O17
spelling of the vowels in the final syllable of a foreign word O17
spelling system cf. irregular spelling system, old spelling system, new spelling system
square brackets O67
-sta- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
stem M15
stem plural M70--M71
stem superlative M103
stem-end alternation M21, M35--M44
stem-end alternation of conjugable words M44
stem-end alternation patterns M35, M42--M44
stem-end alternation patterns of declinable words M43
stem-end changes M35, M39--M41
stem-end changes of conjugable words M41
stem-end changes of declinable words M40
-sti (adverb suffix) SM41
-stik (substantive suffix) SM20, SM23
-stikku (adverb suffix) SM41
stop O6
strengthening gradation M33
strengthening gradational changes M26
stress O8
stressed syllable O8
strong-graded stem M22
structural elements of names L54
study of personal names cf. anthroponymy
style L29
stylistic colour L29
stylistic differentiation of vocabulary L29
stylistic inappropriateness L29
stylistic nuance L29
stylistic synonyms L32
subject SÜ8, SÜ32--SÜ34
subject clause SÜ89
subjectless sentence SÜ34
subordinate clause, dependent clause SÜ86, SÜ89
subordinate compound adjective SM37--SM39
subordinate compound substantive SM27--SM31
subordinate compound (word) SM4
subordinate syntagm SÜ6
subordinating conjunction M13, SÜ54
subordination SÜ6, SÜ89
substandard vocabulary L29
substantive M4
substantive + adjective SM37
substantive + substantive SM29
substantive + substantive (solid and separate writing) O39
substantive in genitive as attribute SÜ71, SÜ74
substantive prefixes SM20, SM26
substantive suffixes SM20--SM26
süda M132
suffix M15, SM2
suffixation SM2
suffixes denoting assembly or area SM20, SM23
suffixes denoting persons and things SM20, SM22
suffixes of action nouns SM20--SM21
superlative (degree) M100, M103
superordinate clause cf. main clause
supine cf. ma-infinitive
suppletive stem M21
suprasegmental means SJ12, O9
surname L55
suur (declension type) M147
Swedish borrowings L10
syllabication O7
syllable O7
syllable division at the end of a line O7
symbol L45
synchronic lexicology L1
synecdoche L45
synonyms L32
ynonyms by function in speech L32
synonymy L32
synsemantic word, form word M1
syntactic derivation SM3
syntactic functions cf. parts of sentence
syntactic functions of constituents SÜ4, SÜ5
syntactic relation SÜ6
syntactic structure SÜ6
syntactic unit SÜ3
syntax SJ9, SJ11, SÜ1


-t- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
-ta- (verb suffix) SM9--SM10
taboo L33
-tar (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
tautology L49
tav-construction SÜ99, SÜ101
tav-participle M78
tegema (conjugation type) M183
teine M138
-tele- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
tema M159
tense M72, M85--M90
term L22
term of abuse L29
terminative M62
terminological dictionary L60
terminology L22
text linguistics SÜ1
theme SÜ10, SÜ66
third degree of quantity O10
-ti (adverb suffix) SM41
time SÜ9, SÜ23--SÜ28
time of day O54
-tle- (verb suffix) SM9, SM15
too M159
toponym, place name L56
toponymy, place-name study L56
total object SÜ36--SÜ37
total predicative SÜ40--SÜ41
total subject SÜ33
tõusma (conjugation type) M179
trade names O35
transcription O23
transfer of meaning L45
transferred meaning L47
transitive verb M3, SÜ35
translation dictionary L62
translative (case) M61
translative suffixes SM9, SM12
transliteration O22
treima (conjugation type) M164
trilled sound O6
-ts (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-tse- (verb suffix) SM9, SM13
-tsi (adverb suffix) SM41
-tu (adjective suffix) SM33, SM34
-tu (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
tud-construction SÜ99--SÜ100
tud-participle M79
tulema (conjugation type) M171
tuli (declension type) M122
type of word formation SM2
type word, model word M19


-u (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21, SM24
-u- (verb suffix) SM9, SM11, SM16
üks M150
underlying stem SM2
uninflected words M46
unstressed syllable O8
-(u)r (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
-ur (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
Uralic vocabulary L7
urbonym L56
-us (substantive suffix) SM20--SM21
use of abbreviations O46
use of numbers O51
usual meaning L47
uus--küüs (declension type) M148


-v (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
väike(ne) M138
vat-construction SÜ99
vat-infinitive M73, M75
v-construction SÜ99, SÜ101
vedru M124
-vel (adverb suffix) SM41
-vele (adverb suffix) SM41
verb M3
verb + substantive SM30
verb phrase SÜ3
verb suffixes SM9--SM16
verbal particle M10
vernacular words L7
vestlema (conjugation type) M189
-vil (adverb suffix) SM41
-vile (adverb suffix) SM41
vocabulary (lexis) L4
vocabulary L59
vocabulary of fiction L30
vocabulary entry L59
vocabulary of formal style L30
vocalic plural M70--M71
voice M72, M82--M84, SÜ17, SÜ19--SÜ21
voiced consonant O6
voiceless consonant O6
võima (conjugation type) M165
Volga-Finnic vocabulary L7
vowel O5--O6
v-participle M78
-(V)r (substantive suffix) SM20, SM22
-(V)s (adjective suffix) SM33, SM35
vulgarisms L29


ways of coining new Estonian words L5
weakening gradation M32
weakening gradational change M26
weakening of underlying stem SM5
weak-graded stem M22
weakly stressed syllable O8
widening of meaning L44
word SJ10, L2
word form SJ10, SÜ2--SÜ3, L2
word formation SJ9, SJ11, SM1
word (in text), running word L2
word-list L59--L61
word order SÜ66--SÜ69, SÜ81
word semantics L41
words derived from names O20
writer's dictionary L60
writing of cardinal numerals with numbers O52
writing of ordinal numerals with numbers O52
writing, script SJ12, O1


zero suffix SM2
zero-derivation cf. conversion